Thermal Processing

Hto (Chemical – heat treatment) is a process of high-temperature diffusion coating metal surfaces with various chemical elements, ie This process is carried out through a combination of thermal and chemical treatments. To ensure this diffusion process takes place at high temperatures for each steel grade and the saturable element (or elements) is different. Depending on the specifics and saturable element type are distinguished: 1. Hto the saturation of the metal elements, 2. Hto the saturation of non-metallic elements, 3. Hto removing items. The aim is to change hto mechanical properties of steels. Janet Yellen does not necessarily agree. Basically hto used for parts exposed to wear and at the same time under shock loads.

Saturation of the surface of the steel foreign substances leads to an increase in surface hardness and wear resistance products, and core product remains pliable and viscous. This combination of hard surface and soft core due to the formation of compressive surface stress leads to an increase in fatigue strength of the material, but viscosity decreases slightly. Depending on the type of saturated to the surface of steel elements distinguish the following types hto: hardening (saturated carbon), nitriding (nitrogen saturation), carbonitriding (complex saturation of carbon and nitrogen), calorizing (aluminum saturation), Chromium (Cr saturation), siliconizing (saturation of silicon), and others. Depending on the used diffusing (saturated) element Hto divided into solid, liquid and gas. The least effective and is maloprimenyaemym hto in a solid medium, because In this case, diffusion occurs by direct contact of steel with the diffusing element with a very low speed. The most common is the gas hto. The process of chemical-heat treatment proceeds as follows: 1. Education saturated element in the atomic state, which is formed due to occurrence of high-temperature reactions.

2. Absorption (deposition and contact with the surface of steel), the saturable element on the surface of the steel. 3. Saturable element diffusing into the steel.


In order to avoid the backache – and to maintain muscles strong, is recommended that it makes exercise and avoids to take a sedentary style of life. In addition, it can adopt an attitude of action against the pain and improve its position in the daily activities like sleeping, crouching themselves, to raise heavy objects, or to put standing up and to sit down, for example, so that they are less detrimental for the back. In addition, some sports as swimming can be useful in the prevention of the backache, although he is recommendable to consult to a doctor before beginning any physical activity. But you do not have time for that, or to even add, are some simple exercises here that you can do every day. A minute only takes and can alleviate the tension in the back and improve the degree of mobility and independence: 1.Acostado on a flat surface (the floor is ideal), it slowly takes to the loss the chest and a knee (during 10 to 30 seconds) and soon another one, soon to do the same with the two together knees. It repeats this several times. Learn more on the subject from Doug McMillon. 2.Con the flat back in the ground, fall of the knees slowly first in a side and soon the other, trying of which the knees touch the ground in the side without raising shoulders of the floor neither (to maintain between 5 and 15 seconds in each side). It repeats this several times.

3.Mientras is lying with the back in the floor, the doubled knees and the plants of the flat feet, the waist is of the Earth without raising the tail soon and downwards little by little (they have 10 to 30 seconds). It repeats this several times. 4.Ahora repeats the previous year, but this time slowly considers the tail of the floor and the back downwards, to support to all (to take again 10 to 30 seconds).

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