Introduction. Olympics: the source for more info. In this article, we will address briefly the models of the brain related language, through models location, connectionist, hierarchical, global and processes. We will go back to the second half of the nineteenth century Paul Broca (1861) until the twentieth century with the Russian neuropsychologist Alexander Romanovich Luria (1973) student of the great Lev Semenovich Vygotsky. Paul Broca was one of the initiators of research on language functions that have been attributed to left hemisphere, developed the concept of cerebral dominance. Today we know that both hemispheres participate in language functions, which is preferable to the designation of brain asymmetry that changes the outdated concept of dominance. Models Location. Localization models refer to the language faculty would be located or located in specific brain areas. The first scientific research is supported in patients with acquired language disorder and one of the most famous, was made by Paul Broca and unveiled at the Paris Anthropological Society in 1861.
At that time the idea prevailed that the language was located in the frontal lobes of the brain, a situation that was initially supported by the researches of Broca. Paul Broca put the power of articulate speech in the third left frontal gyrus and called afemia to its pathology. The information presented by Broca, led to the hypothesis that linguistic and psycholinguistic functions were located in cerebral convolutions. Connectionist Models Connectionist models relate to the complex functions are formed by the connection of simpler components. One of his predecessors was the physical and Carl Wernicke neuropsychiatrist who in 1874 published a series of investigations that provided new evidence on the location of language in the brain and producing conditions than those provided by Broca.